Dating techniques archaeology philippines
One scholar, at least, has challenged the idea of the kendi having an Indian origin. Modern black burnished earthenware kendis with a bulbous body that tapers to a narrow, flat base, a tall, straight neck, a conical spout and a lid. Archaeologists are re-investigating the ancient Indian-influenced site of Oc Eo in the Mekong Delta (today Vietnam) and the University of Hawaii/East-West Center and the Royal University of Fine Arts, Phnom Penh have conducted research at the site of Angkor Borei in Takeo Province, southern Cambodia since 1995.
Drawing on ethnographic, archaeological and religious data, she has questioned whether or not an etymological link is sufficient evidence to assume that the form itself originated in India. Both sites date from 100 to 550 and research shows that Oc Eo and Angkor Borei are linked by a network of canals.
As the lips never touch the spout, the kendi is a hygienic and convenient communal drinking vessel.
Kundika: a prototype for the kendi 'Kendi' is a Malay word derived from the Sanskrit name 'kunda,' which came from 'kundika' a particular form of Indian vessel used as a container for liquids in both Hindu and Buddhist ceremonies.
Such long lapses in port gave rise to intermarriages between foreign men and native women.Within Southeast Asia, the kundika is far rarer but it does appear in scenes carved in relief on the walls of the ninth century Mahayana Buddhist temple of Borobudur in central Java.The Buddha sits cross-legged with a kundika on his left, and devotees present offerings on his right (Plate 1). Made of precious metal such as gold, silver or bronze, the kendi and its precursor, the kundika, appear in sculpture and painting as an attribute often held in a hand of the Hindu gods Brahma and Shiva, Maitreya the future Buddha and the compassionate Avalokitesvara (in Mahayana Buddhism). Drawing after Sumarah Adhyatman, The kendi is a well-known form in the Southeast Asian repertoire of vessels, and it has played a significant role in the rituals and daily life of the region since ancient times.