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In other cultures circumcision is associated with preparation for marriage and as a sign of entry into manhood.Australian Aboriginals circumcise a boy when he reaches puberty in a ceremony that is part of “men's business”.In the Muslim religion circumcision is performed over a wide range of ages in childhood.But a more compelling reason was that circumcision accompanied the radiation of primitive humans out of Africa 80,000 years ago, as outlined in the history section.Until 1960 the Catholic church celebrated “Circumcision Day” or “The Feast of the Circumcision” on New Year’s Day (the 8 day after the day that the birth of Jesus of Nazareth is celebrated, albeit not the actual day he was born, which is not known precisely) [Mattelaer et al., 2007].There is an enormous number of works of art by uncircumcised European artists depicting “Christ’s circumcision” [Mattelaer et al., 2007].The Judeo-Muslim practice of circumcision quite likely had its origin in Egyptian civilization, where there is evidence of a circumcised mummy at the time the Hebrews inhabited Egypt, as well as illustrations of the operation itself and of circumcised Pharoahs, dating back to 3000 BC [Weiss, 1997].
Similarly sand was a problem for uncircumcised men during the Gulf War in Iraq (“Desert Storm”) in the early 1990s [Gardner, 1991; Schoen, 2007e].
After Moses led them out of Egypt a ritual of circumcision on the 8 day post-partum was instituted as a “covenant with God”.
(Of course this tradition was then lost during their wanderings, and was re-instituted later, as described in section 4 on the history of circumcision.) The Prophet Mohammad, born in hot, dry, sandy Saudi Arabia, was also circumcised as are all Muslims today.
There are several theories and there may be elements of truth to each.
As mentioned above, according to Cox, the ritual removal of the foreskin in diverse human traditional cultures, ranging from those in the Middle East (Jewish and Islamic) to that of Aboriginal Australians, could be a sign of civilization in that human society acquired the ability to control, through education and religion, the age at which sexual intercourse could begin [Cox, 1995].